HISTORY of the CHRISTIAN CHURCH*

 

 

CONTENTS

 

SECOND PERIOD

 

ANTE-NICENE CHRISTIANITY

 

a.d. 100–311 (325).

 

––––––––

 

INTRODUCTION.

 

§ 1. General Literature on the Ante-Nicene Age

§ 2. General Character of Ante-Nicene Christianity.

 

CHAPTER I:

Spread of Christianity.

 

§ 3. Literature.

§ 4. Hindrances and Helps.

§ 5. Causes of the Success of Christianity.

§ 6. Means of Propagation.

§ 7. Extent of Christianity in the Roman Empire.

§ 8. Christianity in Asia.

§ 9. Christianity in Egypt.

§ 10. Christianity in North Africa.

§ 11. Christianity in Europe.

 

CHAPTER II:

Persecution of Christianity and Christian Martyrdom.

 

§ 12. Literature.

§ 13. General Survey.

§ 14. Jewish Persecution.

§ 15. Causes of Roman Persecution.

§ 16. Condition of the Church before the Reign of Trajan.

§ 17. Trajan. a.d. 98–117—Christianity Forbidden

§ 18. Hadrian. a.d. 117–138.

§ 19 Antoninus Pius. a.d. 137–161. The Martyrdom of Polycarp.

§ 20. Persecutions under  Marcus Aurelius. a.d. 161–180.

§ 21. Condition of the Church from Septimius Severus to Philip the Arabian. a.d. 193–249.

§ 22. Persecutions under Decius, and Valerian. a.d. 249–260. Martyrdom of Cyprian.

§ 23. Temporary Repose. a.d. 260–303.

§ 24. The Diocletian Persecution, a.d. 303–311.

§ 25. The Edicts of Toleration. a.d. 311–313.

§ 26. Christian Martyrdom.

§ 27. Rise of the Worship of Martyrs and Relics.

 

CHAPTER III.

Literary Contest of Christianity with Judaism and Heathenism.

 

§ 28. Literature.

§ 29. Literary Opposition to Christianity.

§ 30. Jewish Opposition. Josephus and the Talmud.

§ 31. Pagan Opposition. Tacitus and Pliny.

§ 32. Direct Assaults. Celsus.

§ 33. Lucian.

§ 34. Neo-Platonism.

§ 35. Porphyry and Hierocles

§ 36. Summary of the Objections to Christianity.

§ 37. The Apologetic Literature of Christianity.

§ 38. The Argument against Judaism.

§ 39. The Defense against Heathenism.

§ 40. The Positive Apology.

 

CHAPTER IV:

Organization and Discipline of the Church.

 

§ 41. Progress in Consolidation.

§ 42. Clergy and Laity.

§ 43. New Church Officers.

§ 44. Origin of the Episcopate.

§ 45. Development of the Episcopate. Ignatius.

§ 46. Episcopacy at the time of Irenaeus and Tertullian.

§ 47. Cyprianic Episcopacy.

§ 48. The Pseudo-Clementine Episcopacy.

§ 49. Beginnings of the Metropolitan and Patriarchal Systems

§ 50. Germs of the Papacy.

§ 51. Chronology of the Popes.

§ 52. List of the Roman Bishops and Roman Emperors during the First Three Centuries.

§ 53. The Catholic Unity.

§ 54. Councils.

§ 55. The Councils of Elvira, Arles, and Ancyra.

§ 56. Collections of Ecclesiastical Law. The Apostolical Constitutions and Canons.

§ 57. Church Discipline.

§ 58. Church Schisms.

 

CHAPTER V:

Christian Worship.

 

§ 59. Places of Common Worship.

§ 60. The Lord’s Day.

§ 61. The Christian Passover. (Easter).

§ 62. The Paschal Controversies.

§ 63. Pentecost.

§ 64. The Epiphany

§ 65. The Order of Public Worship.

§ 66. Parts of Worship.

§ 67. Division of Divine Service. The Disciplina Arcani.

§ 68. Celebration of the Eucharist.

§ 69. The Doctrine of the Eucharist.

§ 70. The Celebration of Baptism.

§ 71. The Doctrine of Baptism.

§ 72. Catechetical Instruction and Confirmation.

§ 73. Infant Baptism.

§ 74. Heretical Baptism.

 

CHAPTER VI:

Christian Art.

 

§ 75. Literature.

§ 76. Origin of Christian Art.

§ 77. The Cross and the Crucifix.

§ 78. Other Christian Symbols.

§ 79  Historical and Allegorical Pictures

§ 80. Allegorical Representations of Christ.

§ 81. Pictures of the Virgin Mary.

 

CHAPTER VII:

The Church in the Catacombs.

 

§ 82. Literature.

§ 83. Origin and History of the Catacomb.

§ 84. Description of the Catacombs.

§ 85. Pictures and Sculptures.

§ 86. Epitaphs.

§ 87. Lessons of the Catacombs.

 

CHAPTER VIII:

The Christian Life in Contrast with Pagan Corruption.

 

§ 88. Literature.

§ 89. Moral Corruption of the Roman Empire.

§ 90. Stoic Morality

§ 91. Epictetus.

§ 92. Marcus Aurelius.

§ 93. Plutarch.

§ 94. Christian Morality.

§ 95. The Church and Public Amusements.

§ 96. Secular Callings and Civil Duties.

§ 97. The Church and Slavery.

§ 98. The Heathen Family.

§ 99. The Christian Family.

§ 100. Brotherly Love, and Love for Enemies.

§ 101. Prayer and Fasting.

§ 102. Treatment of the Dead

§ 103. Summary of Moral Reforms.

 

 

CHAPTER IX:

Ascetic Tendencies.

 

§ 104. Ascetic Virtue and Piety.

§ 105. Heretical and Catholic Asceticism.

§ 106. Voluntary Poverty.

§ 107. Voluntary Celibacy.

§ 108. Celibacy of the Clergy.

 

CHAPTER X:

Montanism.

 

§ 109. Literature.

§ 110. External History of Montanism.

§ 111. Character and Tenets of Montanism.

 

CHAPTER XI:

The Heresies of the Ante-Nicene Age.

 

§ 112. Judaism and Heathenism within the Church.

§ 113. Nazarenes and Ebionites (Elkesaites, Mandaeans).

§ 114. The Pseudo-Clementine Ebionism.

§ 115. Gnosticism. The Literature.

§ 116. Meaning, Origin and Character of Gnosticism.

§ 117. The System of Gnosticism. Its Theology.

§ 118. Ethics of Gnosticism.

§ 119. Cultus and Organization.

§ 120. Schools of Gnosticism.

§ 121. Simon Magus and the Simonians.

§ 122. The Nicolaitans.

§ 123. Cerinthus.

§ 124. Basilides.

§ 125. Valentinus.

§ 126. The School of Valentinus. Heracleon, Ptolemy, Marcos, Bardesanes, Harmonius.

§ 127. Marcion and his School.

§ 128. The Ophites. The Sethites. The Peratae. The Cainites

§ 129. Saturninus (Satornilos).

§ 130. Carpocrates.

§ 131. Tatian and the Encratites.

§ 132. Justin the Gnostic.

§ 133. Hermogenes.

§ 134. Other Gnostic Sects.

§ 135. Mani and the Manichaeans.

§ 136. The Manichaean System.

 

 

CHAPTER XII:

The Development of Catholic Theology.

 

§ 137. Catholic Orthodoxy.

§ 138. The Holy Scriptures and the Canon.

§ 139. Catholic Tradition.

§ 140. The Rule of Faith and the Apostles’ Creed.

§ 141. Variations of the Apostles’ Creed.

§ 142. God and the Creation.

§ 143. Man and the Fall.

§ 144. Christ and the Incarnation.

§ 145. The Divinity of Christ.

§ 146. The Humanity of Christ.

§ 147. The Relation of the Divine and the Human in Christ.

§ 148. The Holy Spirit.

§ 149. The Holy Trinity.

§ 150. Antitrinitarians. First Class: The Alogi,Theodotus, Artemon, Paul of Samosata.

§ 151. Second Class of Antitrinitarians: Praxeas, Noëtus, Callistus, Berryllus.

§ 152. Sabellianism.

§ 153. Redemption.

§ 154. Other Doctrines.

§ 155. Eschatology. Immortality and Resurrection.

§ 156. Between Death and Resurrection.

§ 157. After Judgment. Future Punishment.

§ 158. Chiliasm.

 

CHAPTER XIII:

Ecclesiastical Literature of the Ante-Nicene Age, and Biographical Sketches of the Church Fathers.

 

§ 159. Literature.

§ 160. A General Estimate of the Fathers.

§ 161. The Apostolic Fathers.

§ 162. Clement of Rome.

§ 163. The Pseudo-Clementine Works.

§ 164. Ignatius of Antioch.

§ 165. The Ignatian Controversy.

§ 166. Polycarp of Smyrna.

§ 167. Barnabas.

§ 168. Hermas.

§ 169. Papias.

§ 170. The Epistle to Diognetus.

§ 171. Sixtus of Rome.

§ 172. The Apologists. Quadratus and Aristides.

§ 173. Justin the Philosopher and Martyr.

§ 174. The Other Greek Apologists. Tatian.

§ 175. Athenagoras.

§ 176. Theophilus of Antioch.

§ 177. Melito of Sardis.

§ 178. Apolinarius of Hierapolis. Miltiades.

§ 179. Hermias.

§ 180. Hegesippus.

§ 181. Dionysius of Corinth.

§ 182. Irenaeus

§ 183. Hippolytus.

§ 184. Caius of Rome.

§ 185. The Alexandrian School of Theology.

§ 186. Clement of Alexandria.

§ 187. Origen.

§ 188. The Works of Origen.

§ 189. Gregory Thaumaturgus.

§ 190. Dionysius the Great.

§ 191. Julius Africanus.

§ 192. Minor Divines of the Greek Church.

§ 193. Opponents of Origen. Methodius

§ 194. Lucian of Antioch.

§ 195. The Antiochian School.

§ 196. Tertullian and the African School.

§ 197. The Writings of Tertullian.

§ 198; Minucius Felix.

§ 199. Cyprian.

§ 200. Novatian.

§ 201. Commodian.

§ 202. Arnobius.

§ 203. Victorinus of Petau.

§ 204. Eusebius, Lactantius, Hosius.

 

––––––––

 

Illustrations from the Catacombs.

Alphabetical Index.

 

 



* Schaff, Philip, History of the Christian Church, (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.) 1997. This material has been carefully compared, corrected¸ and emended (according to the 1910 edition of Charles Scribner's Sons) by The Electronic Bible Society, Dallas, TX, 1998.


Return to Previous Page