HISTORY of the CHRISTIAN CHURCH*

 

 

CONTENTS.

 

FROM GREGORY VII. TO BONIFACE VIII. A. D. 1049–1294.

 

§ 1. General Literature.

§ 2. Introductory Survey.

 

 CHAPTER I. THE HILDEBRANDIAN POPES. A.D. 1049–1073.

 

§ 3. Sources and Literature on Chapters I. and II.

§ 4. Hildebrand and his Training.

§ 5. Hildebrand and Leo IX. 1049–1054.

§ 6. Victor II. and Stephen IX. (X.). 1055–1058.

§ 7. Nicolas II. and the Cardinals. 1059–1061.

§ 8. The War against Clerical Marriage.

§ 9. Alexander II. and the Schism of Cadalus. 1061–1073.

 

 CHAPTER II. GREGORY VII, 1073–1085.

 

§ 10. Hildebrand elected Pope. His Views on the Situation.

§ 11. The Gregorian Theocracy.

§ 12. Gregory VII. as a Moral Reformer. Simony and Clerical Marriage.

§ 13. The Enforcement of Sacerdotal Celibacy.

§ 14. The War over Investiture.

§ 15. Gregory VII. and Henry IV.

§ 16. Canossa. 1077.

§ 17. Renewal of the Conflict. Two Kings and Two Popes.

§ 18. Death of Gregory VII.

 

 CHAPTER III. THE PAPACY FROM THE DEATH OF GREGORY VII. TO THE CONCORDAT OF WORMS. A.D. 1085–1122.

 

§ 19. Victor III. and Urban II. 1086–1099.

§ 20. Pascal II. and Henry V. 1099–1118.

§ 21. The Concordat of Worms. 1122.

§ 22. The Conflict of the Hierarchy in England. William the Conqueror and Lanfranc.

§ 23. William Rufus and Anselm.

§ 24. Anselm and Henry I.

 

 CHAPTER IV. THE PAPACY FROM THE CONCORDAT OF WORMS TO INNOCENT III. A.D. 1122–1198.

 

§ 25. Innocent II., 1130–1143, and Eugene III., 1145–1153.

§ 26. Arnold of Brescia.

§ 27. The Popes and the Hohenstaufen.

§ 28. Adrian IV. and Frederick Barbarossa.

§ 29. Alexander III. in Conflict with Barbarossa.

§ 30. The Peace of Venice. 1177.

§ 31. Thomas Becket and Henry II of England.

§ 32. The Archbishop and the King.

§ 33. The Martyrdom of Thomas Becket. Dec. 29, 1170.

§ 34. The Effects of Becket’s Murder.

 

 CHAPTER V. INNOCENT III. AND HIS AGE. A.D. 1198–1216.

 

§ 35. Literature.

§ 36. Innocent’s Training and Election.

§ 37. Innocent’s Theory of the Papacy.

§ 38. Innocent and the German Empire.

§ 39. Innocent and King John of England.

§ 40. Innocent and Magna Charta.

§ 41. The Fourth Lateran Council, 1215.

 

 CHAPTER VI. THE PAPACY FROM THE DEATH OF INNOCENT III. TO BONIFACE VIII. 1216–1294.

 

§ 42. The Papal Conflict with Frederick II Begun.

§ 43. Gregory IX. and Frederick II. 1227–1241.

§ 44. The First Council of Lyons and the Close of Frederick’s Career. 1241–1250.

§ 45. The Last of the Hohenstaufen.

§ 46. The Empire and Papacy at Peace. 1271–1294.

 

 CHAPTER VII. THE CRUSADES.

 

§ 47. Literature on the Crusades as a Whole.

§ 48. Character and Causes of the Crusades.

§ 49. The Call to the Crusades.

§ 50. The First Crusade and the Capture of Jerusalem.

§ 51. The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. 1099–1187.

§ 52. The Fall of Edessa and the Second Crusade.

§ 53. The Third Crusade. 1189–1192.

§ 54. The Children’s Crusades.

§ 55. The Fourth Crusade and the Capture of Constantinople. 1200–1204.

§ 56. Frederick II. and the Fifth Crusade. 1229.

§ 57. St. Louis and the Last Crusades. 1248, 1270.

§ 58. The Last Stronghold of the Crusaders in Palestine.

§ 59. Effects of the Crusades.

§ 60. The Military Orders.

 

 CHAPTER VIII. THE MONASTIC ORDERS.

 

§ 61. The Revival of Monasticism.

§ 62. Monasticism and the Papacy.

§ 63. The Monks of Cluny.

§ 64. The Cistercians.

§ 65. St. Bernard of Clairvaux.

§ 66. The Augustinians, Carthusians, Carmelites, and other Orders.

§ 67. Monastic Prophets.

§ 68. The Mendicant Orders.

§ 69. Franciscan Literature.

§ 70. St. Francis d’Assisi.

§ 71. The Franciscans.

§ 72. St. Dominic and the Dominicans.

 

 CHAPTER IX. MISSIONS.

 

§ 73. Literature and General Survey.

§ 74. Missions in Northeastern Germany.

§ 75. Missions among the Mohammedans.

§ 76. Missions among the Mongols.

§ 77. The Jews.

 

 CHAPTER X. HERESY AND ITS SUPPRESSION.

 

§ 78. Literature for the Entire Chapter.

§ 79. The Mediaeval Dissenters.

§ 80. The Cathari.

§ 81. Peter de Bruys and Other Independent Leaders.

§ 82. The Amaurians and Other Isolated Sects.

§ 83. The Beguines and Beghards.

§ 84. The Waldenses.

§ 85. The Crusades against the Albigenses.

§ 86. The Inquisition. Its Origin and Purpose.

§ 87. The Inquisition. Its Mode of Procedure and Penalties.

 

 CHAPTER XI. UNIVERSITIES AND CATHEDRALS.

 

§ 88. Schools.

§ 89. Books and Libraries.

§ 90. The Universities.

§ 91. The University of Bologna.

§ 92. The University of Paris.

§ 93. Oxford and Cambridge.

§ 94. The Cathedrals.

 

 CHAPTER XII. SCHOLASTIC AND MYSTIC THEOLOGY.

 

§ 95. Literature and General Introduction.

§ 96. Sources and Development of Scholasticism.

§ 97. Realism and Nominalism.

§ 98. Anselm of Canterbury.

§ 99. Peter Abaelard.

§ 100. Abaelard’s Teachings and Theology.

§ 101. Younger Contemporaries of Abaelard.

§ 102. Peter the Lombard and the Summists.

§ 103. Mysticism.

§ 104. St. Bernard as a Mystic.

§ 105. Hugo and Richard of St. Victor.

 

 CHAPTER XIII. SCHOLASTICISM AT ITS HEIGHT.

 

§ 106. Alexander of Hales.

§ 107. Albertus Magnus.

§ 108  Thomas Aquinas.

§ 109. Bonaventura.

§ 110. Duns Scotus.

§ 111. Roger Bacon.

 

 CHAPTER XIV. THE SACRAMENTAL SYSTEM.

 

§ 112. Literature on the Sacraments.

§ 113. The Seven Sacraments.

§ 114. Baptism and Confirmation.

§ 115. The Eucharist.

§ 116. Eucharistic Practice and Superstition.

§ 117. Penance and Indulgences.

§ 118. Penance and Indulgences.

§ 119. Extreme Unction, Ordination, and Marriage.

§ 120. Sin and Grace.

§ 121. The Future State.

 

 CHAPTER XV. POPE AND CLERGY.

 

§ 122. The canon Law.

§ 123. The Papal Supremacy in Church and State.

§ 124. The Pope and the Curia.

§ 125. Bishops.

§ 126. The Lower Clergy.

§ 127. The Councils.

§ 128. Church and Clergy in England.

§ 129. Two English Bishops.

 

 CHAPTER XVI. POPULAR WORSHIP AND SUPERSTITION.

 

§ 130. The Worship of Mary.

§ 131. The Worship of Relics.

§ 132. The Sermon.

§ 133. Hymns and Sacred Poetry.

§ 134. The Religious Drama.

§ 135. The Flagellants.

§ 136. Demonology and the Dark Arts.

§ 137. The Age passing Judgment upon Itself.

 

 



* Schaff, Philip, History of the Christian Church, (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.) 1997. The material has been carefully compared and corrected according to the Eerdmans reproduction of the 1907 edition by Charles Scribner's sons, with emendations by The Electronic Bible Society, Dallas, TX, 1998.


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