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Appendix To ADAM II - Disciple: Peter
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First called Simon ( Jn.1:41), Simeon being the Gentile form of Hebrew. ( Acts 15:14)
Changed to Cephas (Aramaic) by Jesus, or Peter in Greek. Called "son of Jona," meaning, "dove," hence, changed to Cephas, meaning "rock." (Jesus was going to change Peter from a "fluttering (impulsive) dove" to a solid (immovable) rock of a man ( Jn.1:42). The custom of that day, since the Jews were ruled by Romans (Greek speaking), was to have two names: Greek for public life and Hebrew for personal, or private associations.)
Thus impetuous in character ( Mt.16:22; 14:28; Jn.13:8-9; 18:10), yet given to sink in courage and faith ( Mt.14:30; Mk.14:71).
More is disclosed of Peter in the New Testament than any of the 12.
He is a native of Bethsaida of Galilee ( Jn.1:44); brother to Andrew ( Jn.1:40); fellow citizen with Philip ( Jn.1:44); thus a Galilean Jew.
Partner with brother in fishing industry ( Mt.4:18), James, and John ( Lk.5:10).
Married ( Mt.8:14). Wife called, Concordia, or Perpetua (tradition). Took her on his work ( I Co.9:5). Made home in Capernaum ( Mk.1:29).
Always heads list of disciples ( Mt.10:2; Mk.3:16; Lk.6:12; Acts 1:13).
Brought to Jesus by brother, Andrew ( Jn.1:41); later called to full time discipleship ( Mt.4:19); separated as an Apostle ( Mt.10:2).
The first to confess Jesus as the Christ. ( Mt.16:16)
A usual spokesman for all ( Jn.6:68-69).
On the Mt. of Transfiguration with James & John ( Lk.9:23).
Forewarned by Jesus of his triple denial ( Jn.13:38; 18:27).
Repented ( Lk.22:62); reconciled by Jesus ( Jn.21:15); commissioned by Christ ( Jn.21:17); future foretold ( Jn.21:18-19).
Witnessed Jesus' ascension with 10 ( Acts 1:10); instrumental in origin and growth of New Testament Church (Acts 2-15:7).
Given to partisanship with Jewish Christians ( Gal.2:11-12) until vision received from God ( Acts 10:15; 11:17).
Last mentioned in Acts 15:7 in defense of Gentiles.
Author of 2 letters (I & II Peter) and is believed to have influenced gospel of close friend (son or disciple), Mark ( Acts 12:12; I Pe.5:13).
Extra-Biblical legends identify him as a Bishop in Antioch; preaching in Babylon, Asia Minor, and finally Rome (ca. A.D. 61), and martyred there about the time of Paul's execution (Nero's persecution, A.D. 66-67?). An amusing story is told of his ongoing battle with Simon Magnus (of Acts 8:9-24) and Magnus' unsuccessful attempt to fly. Legend has it after enraging Agrippa and Albinus, Peter was forced to witness the crucifixion of his wife, and himself then crucified upside down per his own request, feeling unworthy to die in the manner of his Lord (Eusebius, 3.1). So the transformation was complete -- from a "fluttering dove" to an "immovable rock."